Design Components

Design Components

Room Temperature (RT)

From the supporting literature (linked above), the measure of room temperature (Fahrenheit) usually taken in 5 different spots (center and near window or door) of the room. Works of literature on room temperature were reviewed and there was a consensus that the building design, building envelope, and lighting fixtures influence the thermal comfort of a room.


1. Promote the use of building envelope that enhances thermal, visual and acoustic comfort.

2. Implement building codes that guarantee thermal, visual, and acoustic comfort.

Orientation of Window (TC.OW)

Direction Window Face in a room.

From the supporting literature (linked above), Northern and Southern classroom orientations improve energy saving in buildings. Classroom window orientation influences the amount of air that goes in and out of a classroom, and also the quality of indoor air.

Operable Window (Op.W)

Windows in classrooms are operable and provide cross ventilation affecting rooms temperature and air circulation.

From the supporting literature (linked above), it is important to have operable windows in classrooms to ensure cross ventilation and a healthy indoor air quality. Classroom temperature usually appears higher than as designed, hence the need to have operable windows to control and balance indoor temperature.

Form/Shape Variation (FSV)

The shape of the room/ irregular configuration, the geometry of the space affects thermal comfort.

From the supporting literature (linked above), the geometry of classroom space influence its thermal comfort and also impacts occupants health. This includes the height, shape, and form of the classroom. There is a relationship between the school physical setting, building envelope, and thermal comfort of a classroom. These interactions influence educational activities and students behavior. The form/shape variations in a classroom can make a difference in the extent to which classroom thermal comfort is influenced.


1. Avoid irregular shapes and forms in the design of classrooms.

2. The classrooms should be such that teachers can easily modify the space and configuration.

Topology and Landscape Structure (TLS)

Structures/ Buildings below the ground.

From the supporting literature (linked above), classroom temperature could be influenced by the topography of the premises. Perhaps, the Attention Theory that talks about nature exposure also influence classroom temperature. It was observed that topography, environment, school design, and community conception affects classroom thermal comfort and students performance.


1. Avoid building on a surface where the topography of the premises blocks classroom window views.

Windows (W)

The ratio of total window area to total wall area.

From the supporting literature (linked above), the size and dimension of windows in a classroom relative to the entire wall area of the classroom is a key factor in determining the thermal comfort of the classroom. It is necessary to consider classroom size in the design and selection of window sizes and dimensions. The thermal comfort of a classroom will be affected if the window sizes and dimensions are too big or small for the classroom size.


1. The design and selection of classroom window size and dimension should be proportionate to classroom size.


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