Secured Operation (SO)
Physical barriers between students and public street. e.g. Fences, Trees, Walls, etc.
From the supporting literature (linked), fences and real barriers can effective against a determined crime.
Closed Campus (CC)
The school campus is secured requiring permission to enter.
From the supporting literature (linked), is important that school premises are properly secured with a fence or other means requiring permission to enter. All entry into school campuses should be controlled.
1. Coulbourne, W. L., & Miller, J. (2012). Performance of school buildings in the Joplin, MO, Tornado. In Structures Congress 2012 (pp. 989-998).
2. Lanham III, J. W. (1999). Relating building and classroom conditions to student achievement in Virginia’s elementary schools (Doctoral dissertation).
3. Perumean-Chaney, S. E., & Sutton, L. M. (2013). Students and perceived school safety: The impact of school security measures. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 570-588.
4. Tanner-Smith, E. E., & Fisher, B. W. (2016). Visible school security measures and student academic performance, attendance, and postsecondary aspirations. Journal of youth and adolescence, 45(1), 195-210. Chicago
5. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Mitigation Assessment Team Report – Spring 2011 Tornadoes: April 25-28 and May 22 (FEMA P-908). Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). retrieve from: https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/25810
6. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (1999). Building Performance Assessment Report. (FEMA 342). Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). retrieve from: https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1443-20490-7720/fema342.pdf