Amount of Walls with Windows (AW/W)

From the supporting literature (linked above), the benefit of providing daylighting through windows in classrooms on students performance is discussed. The presence, size, and number of windows in a classroom relative to the amount of walls influence classroom lighting. There is consistency among researchers that windows should not be absent in classrooms, and that the design for classrooms should maximize natural lighting through windows and skylights. An association between natural lighting in classrooms, and students behavior and performance has also been noted.


1. Maximize natural light potentials through building orientation.

2. The number of walls to windows in a classroom should be such that allows maximum penetration of daylighting in the classroom.

3. Reduces heat gain and energy demand in classrooms by optimizing natural lighting.

4. Advocate Integrated building designs with mechanical system sorting and building systems synergy.

5. Use artificial lighting to complement natural lighting.

6. Classrooms should be of moderate illumination, not low and not too bright (high).

7. In the design for classrooms, consider the number of walls to windows that make proper illumination.

8. Optimize natural lighting in classrooms through building design, and doors and window orientation.

9. Ensure that the space facing the window is not obstructed.

10. Consider the effect of BUG in determining the appropriate amount of walls to windows in classrooms.

Dimension of Windows (DW)

From the supporting literature (linked above), There is a relationship between the provided amount of lighting through provided windows in classrooms.


1. Ensure that the provided windows and doors maximize penetration of natural light.

2. Optimize natural lighting in classrooms through building design, and doors and window orientation.

3. Placement and selection of doors and window sizes should be such that maximizes natural lighting.

4. Ensure that the space facing the window is not obstructed.

5. Use artificial lighting to complement natural light.


The existence of any other opening like a window in the roof or ceiling.

From the supporting literature (linked above), there is a benefit of providing daylight through skylights on student performance and well-being.

Lights provided through skylights in the building affects classroom temperature and lighting. It also adds to classroom aesthetic view. There is a strong relationship between classroom lighting and thermal comfort.


1. Reduce classroom energy consumption by providing skylights.

2. Optimize natural lighting in classroom design by providing skylights.

Windows Blocked (WB)

The existence of elements which block the daylight in a room.


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2. Barrett, Peter; Fay Davies; Yufan Zhang; Lucinda Barrett (2015). “The Impact of Classroom Design on Pupils’ Learning: Final Results of a Holistic, Multi-level Analysis”. Building and Environment, 89, 118-133.

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