Personal and Social Spaces (PSS)
Amount of space allowed to each student seated.
From the supporting literature (linked above),
1. crowding has an impact on privacy, personal space and individual’s behavior.
2. Providing enough space for social density should be emphasized.
3. There is an association between personal spaces and student behavior and sex differences.
4. The literature also explained that providing a social space that supports students and teachers connectivity makes community value and support education.
5. The literature discusses that there is a relationship between school facility design (personal space as an example) and students’ achievements.
Size of the Classroom (SC)
Total area of the room.
From the supporting literature (linked above),
1. There is a relationship between school overcrowding and student performance.
2. School overcrowding (high density) affects student learning and performance and their thermal, visual and acoustic comfort.
3. High density environment also influences child to become more stressed and show some behaviors that were not leading to social withdrawal.
4. Schools with smaller classroom have higher rate of enrollment compare to schools with bigger classrooms with overcrowding.
5. There is a relationship between school facility design (higher ceilings as an example) and classroom size and students’ achievements.
6. Some parts of the literature are not consistent with previous findings. Some studies discuss that students who are in smaller classroom have better academic outcome with fewer classroom disruption.
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10. Fisher, Kenn (2000). “Building Better Outcomes: The Impact of School Infrastructure on Student Outcomes and Behaviour”. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Australia.
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